# Person: Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús

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Pagola Martínez

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Pedro Jesús

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Ingeniería Matemática e Informática

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Publication Open Access New analytic representations of the hypergeometric functions p+1Fp(Springer, 2021) López García, José Luis; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y MatemáticasShow more The power series expansions of the hypergeometric functions p+1Fp (a,b1,…,bp;c1,…,cp;z) converge either inside the unit disk |z|<1 or outside this disk |z|>1. Nørlund’s expansion in powers of z/(z−1) converges in the half-plane R(z)<1/2. For arbitrary z0∈C, Bühring’s expansion in inverse powers of z−z0 converges outside the disk |z−z0|= max{|z0|,|z0−1|}. None of them converge on the whole indented closed unit disk |z|≤1,z≠1. In this paper, we derive new expansions in terms of rational functions of z that converge in different regions, bounded or unbounded, of the complex plane that contain the indented closed unit disk. We give either explicit formulas for the coefficients of the expansions or recurrence relations. The key point of the analysis is the use of multi-point Taylor expansions in appropriate integral representations of p+1Fp(a,b1,…,bp;c1,…,cp;z). We show the accuracy of the approximations by means of several numerical experiments.Show more Publication Open Access New series expansions of the 3F2 function(2015) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Pérez Sinusía, Ester; Ingeniería Matemática e Informática; Matematika eta Informatika IngeniaritzaShow more We can use the power series definition of 3F2(a1, a2, a3; b1, b2; z) to compute this function for z in the unit disk only. In this paper we obtain new expansions of this function that are convergent in larger domains. Some of these expansions involve the polynomial 3F2(a1,−n, a3; b1, b2; z) evaluated at certain points z. Other expansions involve the Gauss hypergeometric function 2F1. The domain of convergence is sometimes a disk, other times a half-plane, other times the region |z|2 < 4|1 − z|. The accuracy of the approximation given by these expansions is illustrated with numerical experiments.Show more Publication Open Access Uniform convergent expansions of integral transforms(American Mathematical Society, 2021) López García, José Luis; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more Several convergent expansions are available for most of the special functions of the mathematical physics, as well as some asymptotic expansions [NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 2010]. Usually, both type of expansions are given in terms of elementary functions; the convergent expansions provide a good approximation for small values of a certain variable, whereas the asymptotic expansions provide a good approximation for large values of that variable. Also, quite often, those expansions are not uniform: the convergent expansions fail for large values of the variable and the asymptotic expansions fail for small values. In recent papers [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019] we have designed new expansions of certain special functions, given in terms of elementary functions, that are uniform in certain variables, providing good approximations of those special functions in large regions of the variables, in particular for large and small values of the variables. The technique used in [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019] is based on a suitable integral representation of the special function. In this paper we face the problem of designing a general theory of uniform approximations of special functions based on their integral representations. Then, we consider the following integral transform of a function g(t) with kernel h(t, z), F(z) := 1 0 h(t, z)g(t)dt. We require for the function h(t, z) to be uniformly bounded for z ∈D⊂ C by a function H(t) integrable in t ∈ [0, 1], and for the function g(t) to be analytic in an open region Ω that contains the open interval (0, 1). Then, we derive expansions of F(z) in terms of the moments of the function h, M[h(·, z), n] := 1 0 h(t, z)tndt, that are uniformly convergent for z ∈ D. The convergence of the expansion is of exponential order O(a−n), a > 1, when [0, 1] ∈ Ω and of power order O(n−b), b > 0, when [0, 1] ∈/ Ω. Most of the special functions F(z) having an integral representation may be cast in this form, possibly after an appropriate change of the integration variable. Then, special interest has the case when the moments M[h(·, z), n] are elementary functions of z, because in that case the uniformly convergent expansion derived for F(z) is given in terms of elementary functions. We illustrate the theory with several examples of special functions different from those considered in [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019].Show more Publication Open Access Convergent expansions of the confluent hypergeometric functions in terms of elementary functions(American Mathematical Society, 2018) Bujanda Cirauqui, Blanca; López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more We consider the confluent hypergeometric function M(a, b; z) for z ∈ C and Rb >Ra > 0, and the confluent hypergeometric function U(a, b; z) for b ∈ C, Ra > 0, and Rz > 0. We derive two convergent expansions of M(a, b; z); one of them in terms of incomplete gamma functions γ(a, z) and another one in terms of rational functions of ez and z. We also derive a convergent expansion of U(a, b; z) in terms of incomplete gamma functions γ(a, z) and Γ(a, z). The expansions of M(a, b; z) hold uniformly in either Rz ≥ 0 or Rz ≤ 0; the expansion of U(a, b; z) holds uniformly in Rz > 0. The accuracy of the approximations is illustrated by means of some numerical experiments.Show more Publication Open Access Series representations of the Volterra function and the Fransén–Robinson constant(Elsevier, 2021) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more The Volterra function μ(t,β,α) was introduced by Vito Volterra in 1916 as the solution to certain integral equations with a logarithmic kernel. Despite the large number of applications of the Volterra function, the only known analytic representations of this function are given in terms of integrals. In this paper we derive several convergent expansion of μ(t,β,α) in terms of incomplete gamma functions. These expansions may be used to implement numerical evaluation techniques for this function. As a particular application, we derive a numerical series representation of the Fransén–Robinson constant F := µ(1, 1, 0) = R ∞ 0 1 Γ(x) dx. Some numerical examples illustrate the accuracy of the approximationsShow more Publication Open Access The Pearcey integral in the highly oscillatory region(Elsevier, 2016) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Matematika eta Informatika Ingeniaritza; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Ingeniería Matemática e Informática; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more We consider the Pearcey integral P(x, y) for large values of |y| and bounded values of |x|. The integrand of the Pearcey integral oscillates wildly in this region and the asymptotic saddle point analysis is complicated. Then we consider here the modified saddle point method introduced in [Lopez, Pérez and Pagola, 2009] [4]. With this method, the analysis is simpler and it is possible to derive a complete asymptotic expansion of P(x, y) for large |y|. The asymptotic analysis requires the study of three different regions for separately. In the three regions, the expansion is given in terms of inverse powers of y2/3 and the coefficients are elementary functions of x. The accuracy of the approximation is illustrated with some numerical experiments.Show more Publication Open Access An analytic representation of the second symmetric standard elliptic integral in terms of elementary functions(Springer, 2022) Bujanda Cirauqui, Blanca; López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more We derive new convergent expansions of the symmetric standard elliptic integral RD(x,y,z), for x,y,z∈C∖(−∞,0], in terms of elementary functions. The expansions hold uniformly for large and small values of one of the three variables x, y or z (with the other two fixed). We proceed by considering a more general parametric integral from which RD(x,y,z) is a particular case. It turns out that this parametric integral is an integral representation of the Appell function F1(a;b,c;a+1;x,y). Therefore, as a byproduct, we deduce convergent expansions of F1(a;b,c;a+1;x,y). We also compute error bounds at any order of the approximation. Some numerical examples show the accuracy of the expansions and their uniform features.Show more Publication Open Access Analytic formulas for the evaluation of the Pearcey integral(American Mathematical Society, 2017) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Ingeniería Matemática e Informática; Matematika eta Informatika Ingeniaritza; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more We can find in the literature several convergent and/or asymptotic expansions of the Pearcey integral P(x, y) in different regions of the complex variables x and y, but they do not cover the whole complex x and y planes. The purpose of this paper is to complete this analysis giving new convergent and/or asymptotic expansions that, together with the known ones, cover the evaluation of the Pearcey integral in a large region of the complex x and y planes. The accuracy of the approximations derived in this paper is illustrated with some numerical experiments. Moreover, the expansions derived here are simpler compared with other known expansions, as they are derived from a simple manipulation of the integral definition of P(x, y).Show more Publication Open Access New asymptotic expansion and error bound for Stirling formula of reciprocal Gamma function(Ele-Math, 2018) Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Ingeniería Matemática e Informática; Matematika eta Informatika Ingeniaritza; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more Studying the problem about if certain probability measures are determinate by its moments [4, 8, 10] is useful to know the asymptotic behavior of the probability densities for large values of argument. This requires, previously, the knowledge of the asymptotic expansion of reciprocal Gamma function 1/Γ(z) when ℜz is large and ℑz is fixed [8]. Then, the well known Stirling formula for large |z| of the Gamma function Γ(z) or its reciprocal 1/Γ(z) is not appropriate for this problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to obtain a new asymptotic expansion for reciprocal Gamma function valid for large ℜz and establish a new explicit error bound for the first term of this expansion, that is, the Stirling formula.Show more Publication Open Access The uniform asymptotic method "saddle point near an end point" revisited(Elsevier, 2024) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertistate PublikoaShow more We continue the program initiated in [López & all, 2009–2011] to simplify asymptotic methods for integrals: in this paper we revise the uniform method ‘‘saddle point near an end point’’. We obtain a more systematic version of this uniform asymptotic method where the computation of the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion is remarkably simpler than in the classical method. On the other hand, as in the standard method, the asymptotic sequence is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. New asymptotic expansions of the confluent hypergeometric functions 𝑀(𝑐, 𝑥∕𝛼 + 𝑐 + 1, 𝑥) and 𝑈(𝑐, 𝛼𝑥 + 𝑐 + 1, 𝑥) for large 𝑥, 𝑐 fixed, uniformly valid for 𝛼 ∈ (0, ∞), are given as an illustration.Show more