# Person: Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo

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Ederra Urzainqui

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Íñigo

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Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Comunicación

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ISC. Institute of Smart Cities

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0000-0002-0497-1627

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2699

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Publication Open Access Superbackscattering antenna arrays(IEEE, 2015) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta Elektronikoa; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more This article discusses the theory, design and practical implementation of superbackscattering antenna arrays. In analogy with Uzkov’s maximal directivity theorem, it is demonstrated that the maximal backscattering cross-section, normalized to the wavelength squared, of a linear array of N isotropic scatterers whose separation tends to zero is N2(N + 1)2=(4pi). This analytical result is validated via numerical optimization of the excitation coefficients, and the same procedure is utilized to assess the maximal backscattering of arrays of electric Hertzian dipoles (EHDs). It is found that electrically small arrays of two and three EHDs can enhance the backscattering by factors of 6.22 and 22.01, respectively, with respect to the maximum value generated by a single element. In addition, physical realizations of arrays featuring comparable enhancement factors can be straightforwardly designed by using a simple procedure inspired by Yagi-Uda antenna concepts. The practical implementations of such arrays based on copper wires and printed circuit technologies is also addressed.Show more Publication Open Access Least upper bounds of the powers extracted and scattered by bi-anisotropic particles(IEEE, 2014) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ra'di, Younes; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more The least upper bounds of the powers extracted and scattered by bi-anisotropic particles are investigated analytically. A rigorous derivation for particles having invertible polarizability tensors is presented, and the particles with singular polarizability tensors that have been reported in the literature are treated explicitly. The analysis concludes that previous upper bounds presented for isotropic particles can be extrapolated to bianisotropic particles. In particular, it is shown that neither nonreciprocal nor magnetoelectric coupling phenomena can further increase those upper bounds on the extracted and scattered powers. The outcomes are illustrated further with approximate circuit model examples of two dipole antennas connected via a generic lossless network.Show more Publication Open Access A multipolar analysis of near-field absorption and scattering processes(IEEE, 2013) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more A multipolar formulation is adopted to investigate the absorption and scattering processes involved in near-field interactions. This approach allows one to determine the upper bounds for the absorbed and radiated powers that would be achieved by an ideal lossless sensor, which are of particular interest, for example, to wireless power transfer (WPT), wireless sensors and near-field coupled radiators. The multipolar formulation also helps to extricate the fundamental compromises that must be addressed in the design of such systems, as well as to identify strategies that could approach their best possible performances. The general theory is illustrated with an example consisting of a coated sensor illuminated by a Hertzian dipole, which is a representative example of any scattering or radiating system based on small resonators. The example also serves to compare the performance characteristics obtained with different phenomena such as multipolar resonances, phaseinduced interference effects and cloaking.Show more Publication Open Access Grating lobes in higher-order correlation functions of arrays of quantum emitters: directional photon bunching versus correlated directions(MDPI, 2019) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa, Elektronikoaren eta Telekomunikazio Ingeniaritzaren; Institute of Smart Cities - ISC; Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de ComunicaciónShow more Recent advances in nanofabrication and optical manipulation techniques are making it possible to build arrays of quantum emitters with accurate control over the locations of their individual elements. In analogy with classical antenna arrays, this poses new opportunities for tailoring quantum interference effects by designing the geometry of the array. Here, we investigate the Nth-order directional correlation function of the photons emitted by an array of N initially-excited identical quantum emitters, addressing the impact of the appearance of grating lobes. Our analysis reveals that the absence of directivity in the first-order correlation function is contrasted by an enhanced directivity in the Nth-order one. This suggests that the emitted light consists of a superposition of directionally entangled photon bunches. Moreover, the photon correlation landscape changes radically with the appearance of grating lobes. In fact, the photons no longer tend to be bunched along the same direction; rather, they are distributed in a set of correlated directions with equal probability. These results clarify basic aspects of light emission from ensembles of quantum emitters. Furthermore, they may find applications in the design of nonclassical light sources.Show more Publication Open Access Electromangetic force density in electrically and magnetically polarizable media(American Physical Society, 2013) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more The force density induced by electromagnetic fields in electrically and magnetically polarizable media is studied analytically. Different formulations of the force density as a function of field-related quantities, including the spatial derivatives of the fields, gradients of the field intensity, phase gradients, electromagnetic power flow (Poynting vector field), and kinetic momentum flow, are introduced. These formulations retain certain symmetries with respect to the force expressions introduced in previous works for an isolated particle but also point out fundamental differences, such as the suppression of recoil forces, negative radiation pressure, and far-field gradient forces. It is shown how these analytical formulations also provide the necessary means to elucidate the sign of the force density in complex media and how they can assist the design of sources to manipulate clouds of particles. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples of an insulated Hertzian dipole immersed in different media, including lossy dielectrics, media with negative permittivity and permeability, and zero-index media.Show more Publication Open Access Magnetic dipole super-resonances and their impact on mechanical forces at optical frequencies(Optical Society of America, 2014) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more Artificial magnetism enables various transformative optical phenomena, including negative refraction, Fano resonances, and unconventional nanoantennas, beamshapers, polarization transformers and perfect absorbers, and enriches the collection of electromagnetic field control mechanisms at optical frequencies. We demonstrate that it is possible to excite a magnetic dipole super-resonance at optical frequencies by coating a silicon nanoparticle with a shell impregnated with active material. The resulting response is several orders of magnitude stronger than that generated by bare silicon nanoparticles and is comparable to electric dipole super-resonances excited in spaser-based nanolasers. Furthermore, this configuration enables an exceptional control over the optical forces exerted on the nanoparticle. It expedites huge pushing or pulling actions, as well as a total suppression of the force in both far-field and near-field scenarios. These effects empower advanced paradigms in electromagnetic manipulation and microscopy.Show more Publication Open Access Quantum antenna arrays: the role of quantum interference on direction-dependent photon statistics(American Physical Society, 2018) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa, Elektronikoaren eta Telekomunikazio Ingeniaritzaren; Institute of Smart Cities - ISC; Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de ComunicaciónShow more We investigate the role of quantum interference phenomena on the characteristics of the fields radiated by an array of quantum emitters. In analogy to, but distinct from, classical outcomes, we demonstrate that the array geometry empowers control over direction-dependent photon statistics of arbitrary order. Our formulation enables the recognition of configurations providing spatial correlations with no classical counterpart. For example, we identify a system in which the angular distribution of the average number of photons is independent of the number and position of the emitters, while its higher-order photon statistics exhibit a directional behavior. These results extend our understanding of the fields generated by ensembles of quantum emitters, with potential applications to nonclassical light sources.Show more Publication Open Access Upper bounds on scattering processes and metamaterial-inspired structures that reach them(IEEE, 2014) Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more The physical limitations on time-harmonic scattering processes are investigated on the basis of the optical theorem. Previously derived least upper bounds on the total scattering and absorption cross-sections are obtained from it in a straightforward manner. In addition, it reveals a practical upper bound for the bistatic cross-section when evaluated in any direction. It is proved further that the maximum upper bound of the bistatic cross-section occurs in the forward scattering direction and that the corresponding upper bound for the backscattering direction is four times smaller than this maximum value. Metamaterialinspired electrically small antennas and scattering particles that approach these upper bounds are demonstrated. These examples numerically validate the derived upper bounds, as well as illustrate the important physical principles underlying them.Show more Publication Open Access Induction theorem analysis of resonant nanoparticles: design of a huygens source nanoparticle laser(American Physical Society, 2014) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more We propose an advanced formulation of standard antenna theory for the basic investigation and design of resonant nanoparticles. This methodology is based on transforming the original scattering problem into a radiation configuration by invoking the induction theorem. Then applying basic antenna theory principles, such as the suppression of any reactive power, the properties of the resonances are engineered. This nanoantenna approach has been validated by revisiting a number of well-known multilayered core-shell structures. It provides additional important physical insights into how the core-shell structures operate and it enables combinations of different resonant phenomena associated with them, e.g., plasmonic and high-ϵ resonances, in an intuitive manner. Its efficacy is demonstrated by designing a multilayered nanoparticle that achieves lasing with a maximum directivity in the forward direction and a null in the backward direction, i.e., a Huygens source nanoparticle laser.Show more Publication Open Access Near-field electromagnetic trapping through curl-spin forces(American Physical Society, 2013) Liberal Olleta, Íñigo; Ederra Urzainqui, Íñigo; Gonzalo García, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica; Ingeniaritza Elektrikoa eta ElektronikoaShow more Near-field electromagnetic trapping of particles is generally obtained bymeans of gradient forces. In this paper, we discuss the attractive behavior of curl-spin forces, as well as their potential for near-field electromagnetic trapping and manipulation. It is demonstrated that curl-spin forces enable the trapping of particles operating at their resonant frequency. Such phenomena can be exploited to design more efficient and selective electromagnetic traps, to boost near-field energy exchange systems, and to bring stability to coupled resonant radiators. It also is illustrated how the balance between the gradient, radiation pressure, and curl-spin force components leads to the formation of zero-force rings around their sources, which explicitly demarcate the trapping regions. Analytical and numerical analyses are presented to assess the stability of the trapping mechanism.Show more