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    • The drawbacks of welfare effort in measuring social spending trends 

      Aláez Aller, Ricardo Upna Orcid; Díaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Olaskoaga Larrauri, Jon Upna (2008)   Documento de trabajo / Lan gaiak  OpenAccess
      The welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, frequent mentions are made ...