An evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test in older adults: frailty detection based on kinematic parameters from a single inertial unit
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Background: A growing interest in frailty syndrome exists because it is regarded as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older populations. Nevertheless, frailty assessment has been controversial, particularly when identifying this syndrome in a community setting. Performance tests such as the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST) are a cornerstone for detecting early declines in ... [++]
Background: A growing interest in frailty syndrome exists because it is regarded as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older populations. Nevertheless, frailty assessment has been controversial, particularly when identifying this syndrome in a community setting. Performance tests such as the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST) are a cornerstone for detecting early declines in functional independence. Additionally, recent advances in body-fixed sensors have enhanced the sensors’ ability to automatically and accurately evaluate kinematic parameters related to a specific movement performance. The purpose of this study is to use this new technology to obtain kinematic parameters that can identify frailty in an aged population through the performance the 30-s CST. Methods: Eighteen adults with a mean age of 54 years, as well as sixteen pre-frail and thirteen frail patients with mean ages of 78 and 85 years, respectively, performed the 30-s CST while threir trunk movements were measured by a sensor-unit at vertebra L3. Sit-stand-sit cycles were determined using both acceleration and orientation information to detect failed attempts. Movement-related phases (i.e. impulse, stand-up, and sit-down) were differentiated based on seat off and seat on events. Finally, the kinematic parameters of the impulse, stand-up and sit-down phases were obtained to identify potential differences across the three frailty groups. Results: For the stand-up and sit-down phases, velocity peaks and “modified impulse” parameters clearly differentiated subjects with different frailty levels (p < 0.001). The trunk orientation range during the impulse phase was also able to classify a subject according to his frail syndrome (p < 0.001). Furthermore, these parameters derived from the inertial units (IUs) are sensitive enough to detect frailty differences not registered by the number of completed cycles which is the standard test outcome. Conclusions: This study shows that IUs can enhance the information gained from tests currently used in clinical practice, such as the 30-s CST. Parameters such as velocity peaks, impulse, and orientation range are able to differentiate between adults and older populations with different frailty levels. This study indicates that early frailty detection could be possible in clinical environments, and the subsequent interventions to correct these disabilities could be prescribed before further degradation occurs. [--]
Inertial units, Frailty syndrome, Kinematic parameters, 30-s chair stand test, Signal analysis
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2013 10:86
Universidad Pública de Navarra. Departamento de Matemáticas / Universidad Pública de Navarra. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa. Matematika Saila / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa. Osasun Zientziak Saila
The authors are indebted to the Spanish Department of Health and Institute Carlos III of the Government of Spain [Spanish Net on Aging and frailty; (RETICEF)], Department of Health of the Government of Navarre and Economy and Competitivity Department of the Government of Spain, for financing this research with grants numbered RD12/0043/0022, 87/2010, and DEP2011-24105 respectively.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2013 Millor et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.