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dc.creatorBardají Goikoetxea, Leirees_ES
dc.creatorAñorga García, Maitees_ES
dc.creatorEcheverría Ancín, Myriames_ES
dc.creatorRamos, Cayoes_ES
dc.creatorMurillo Martínez, Jesúses_ES
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-25T10:39:34Z
dc.date.available2019-09-25T10:39:34Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.issn1759-8753
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2454/34934
dc.description.abstractBackground: Pseudomonas syringae is a y-proteobacterium causing economically relevant diseases in practically all cultivated plants. Most isolates of this pathogen contain native plasmids collectively carrying many pathogenicity and virulence genes. However, P. syringae is generally an opportunistic pathogen primarily inhabiting environmental reservoirs, which could exert a low selective pressure for virulence plasmids. Additionally, these plasmids usually contain a large proportion of repeated sequences, which could compromise plasmid integrity. Therefore, the identification of plasmid stability determinants and mechanisms to preserve virulence genes is essential to understand the evolution of this pathogen and its adaptability to agroecosystems. Results: The three virulence plasmids of P. syringae pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 contain from one to seven functional stability determinants, including three highly active toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) in both pPsv48A and pPsv48C. The TA systems reduced loss frequency of pPsv48A by two orders of magnitude, whereas one of the two replicons of pPsv48C likely confers stable inheritance by itself. Notably, inactivation of the TA systems from pPsv48C exposed the plasmid to high-frequency deletions promoted by mobile genetic elements. Thus, recombination between two copies of MITEPsy2 caused the deletion of an 8.3 kb fragment, with a frequency of 3.8 ± 0.3 x 10-3. Likewise, one-ended transposition of IS801 generated plasmids containing deletions of variable size, with a frequency of 5.5 ± 2.1 x 1 0- 4, of which 80% had lost virulence gene idi. These deletion derivatives were stably maintained in the population by replication mediated by repJ, which is adjacent to IS801. IS801 also promoted deletions in plasmid pPsv48A, either by recombination or one-ended transposition. In all cases, functional TA systems contributed significantly to reduce the occurrence of plasmid deletions in vivo. Conclusions: Virulence plasmids from P. syringae harbour a diverse array of stability determinants with a variable contribution to plasmid persistence. Importantly, we showed that multiple plasmid-borne TA systems have a prominent role in preserving plasmid integrity and ensuring the maintenance of virulence genes in free-living conditions. This strategy is likely widespread amongst native plasmids of P. syringae and other bacteria.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by the Spanish Plan Nacional I + D + I grants AGL2014–53242-C2–1-R, AGL2014–53242-C2–2-R, AGL2017-82492-C2-1- R, and AGL2017-82492-C2-2-R from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO), co-financed by the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER).en
dc.format.extent24 p.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherBMCen
dc.relation.ispartofMobile DNA, (2019), 10:7en
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectPostsegregational killingen
dc.subjectNative plasmid evolutionen
dc.subjectIS801en
dc.subjectReplicative transpositionen
dc.subjectIS91 familyen
dc.subjectOlive knot diseaseen
dc.subjectPathogenicityen
dc.subjectMITEsen
dc.subjectOne-ended transpositionen
dc.subjectPseudomonas savastanoien
dc.titleThe toxic guardians: multiple toxin-antitoxin systems provide stability, avoid deletions and maintain virulence genes of Pseudomonas syringae virulence plasmidsen
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articleen
dc.typeArtículo / Artikuluaes
dc.contributor.departmentInstitute for Multidisciplinary Research in Applied Biology - IMABen
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen
dc.rights.accessRightsAcceso abierto / Sarbide irekiaes
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s13100-019-0149-4
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MINECO//AGL2014-53242-C2-2-R/ES/en
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016/AGL2017-82492-C2-2-R/ES/en
dc.relation.publisherversionhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s13100-019-0149-4
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersionen
dc.type.versionVersión publicada / Argitaratu den bertsioaes


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© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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