Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and obesity in adolescence and later chronic disability due to cardiovascular disease: a cohort study of 1 million men
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Aims: Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and obesity in adulthood are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known regarding the associations of these risk factors, already in adolescence, with later disability due to chronic CVD. Hence, we investigated associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence with ... [++]
Aims: Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and obesity in adulthood are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known regarding the associations of these risk factors, already in adolescence, with later disability due to chronic CVD. Hence, we investigated associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence with later chronic disability due to specific causes of CVD disability (i.e. cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and heart failure). Methods and results: This population-based cohort study included 1 078 685 male adolescents (16-19 years) from the Swedish military conscription register from 1972 to 1994. Cardiorespiratory fitness (bicycle ergometer test), muscular strength (knee extension strength), and BMI were measured during the conscription examination. Information about disability pension due to CVD was retrieved from the Social Insurance Agency during a mean follow-up of 28.4 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was strongly and inversely associated with later risk of chronic CVD disability for all investigated causes. The association was particularly strong for ischaemic heart diseases (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.05-0.29 for highest vs. lowest fitness-quintiles). Furthermore, overweight/obesity were associated with CVD disability for all investigated causes. Conversely, associations of muscular strength with CVD disability were generally weak. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for associations between low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with later risk of chronic disability due to CVD. Preventive actions may begin at young ages and include promotion of cardiorespiratory fitness and healthy body weight. [--]
Oxford University Press
European Heart Journal, 2020, 41 (15), 1503-1510
Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa. ISFOOD - Institute on Innovation & Sustainable Development in Food Chain
This work was supported by the Karolinska Institutet to F.B.O (2018-02043). Furthermore, H.H. was supported by a grant from the Swedish Society of Medicine and the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden. P.H. was supported by grants from Henning and Johan Throne-Holst Foundation and the Strategic Research Area Health Care Science, Karolinska Institutet/Umeå University. F.B.O. was supported by a visiting grant from Henning and Johan Throne-Holst Foundation. Additional support was obtained from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 667 302; the University of Granada Plan Propio de Investigación 2016-Excellence actions: Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES), and the Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, SOMM17/6107/UGR); the SAMID III network, RETICS, funded by the PN I+D+I 2017-2021 (Spain), ISCIII-Sub-Directorate General for Research Assessment and Promotion (ERDF) (Ref. RD16/0022); and the EXERNET Research Network on Exercise and Health in Special Populations (DEP2005-00046/ACTI).
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