Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiometabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes
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Background: The aim of this study was to determine if the achievement of control targets in patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with personal socioeconomic factors and if these associations were sex-dependent. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Spain. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and other clinical parameters were obtained from electronic primary ... [++]
Background: The aim of this study was to determine if the achievement of control targets in patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with personal socioeconomic factors and if these associations were sex-dependent. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Spain. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level and other clinical parameters were obtained from electronic primary care records (n = 32,638 cases). Socioeconomic status was determined using education level and yearly income. Among patients, having their HbA1c level checked during the previous year was considered as an indirect measure of the process of care, whereas tobacco use and clinical parameters such as HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood pressure (BP) were considered intermediate control outcomes. General linear mixed effect models were used to assess associations. Results: The achievement of metabolic and cardiovascular control targets in patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with educational level and income, and socioeconomic gradients differed by sex. The probability of having had an HbA1c test performed in the previous year was higher in patients with lower education levels. Patients in the lowest income and education level categories were less likely to have reached the recommended HbA1c level. Males in the lowest education level categories were less likely to be non-smokers or to have achieved the blood pressure targets. In contrast, patients within the low income categories had a higher probability of reaching the recommended LDL-c level. Conclusions: Our results suggest the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in the achievement of cardiovascular and metabolic control that differed in direction and magnitude depending on the measured outcome and sex of the patient. These findings may help health professionals focus on high-risk individuals to decrease health inequalities. [--]
BMC Public Health, 2018, 18: 408
Universidad Pública de Navarra. Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa. Osasun Zientziak Saila
This work was supported by the POCTEFA Programme [REFBIO EFA 237/11], Instituto de Salud Carlos III [Grant PI15/02196] and Spanish thematic network Red de Investigación en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Crónicas [REDISSEC, grant RD12/0001 and grant RD16/0001 from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Health and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund].
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