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dc.creatorIribas Pardo, Haritzes_ES
dc.creatorMariñelarena Ollacarizqueta, Jones_ES
dc.creatorFeng, Chenges_ES
dc.creatorUrricelqui Polvorinos, Javieres_ES
dc.creatorSchneider, Thomases_ES
dc.creatorLoayssa Lara, Alaynes_ES
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-23T07:35:29Z
dc.date.available2018-10-23T07:35:29Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.issn1094-4087 (Electronic)
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2454/31113
dc.description.abstractWe report on two previously unknown non-local effects that have been found to impair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors that deploy limited extinction ratio (ER) pump pulses. The first one originates in the increased depletion of the pedestal of the pump pulses by the amplified probe wave, which in turn entails a reduced amplification of the probe and a measurement distortion. The second effect is due to the interplay between the transient response of the erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) that are normally deployed to amplify the pump and the pedestal of the pump pulses. The EDFA amplification modifies the pedestal that follows the pulses in such a way that it also leads to a distortion of the measured gain spectra after normalization. Both effects are shown to lead to non-local effects in the measurements that have similar characteristics to those induced by pump pulse depletion. In fact, the total depletion factor for calculations of the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) error in BOTDA sensors is shown to be the addition of the depletion factors linked to the pump pulse as well as the pedestal. A theoretical model is developed to analyze both effects by numerical simulation. Furthermore, the effects are investigated experimentally in long-range BOTDA sensors. The pedestal depletion effect is shown to severely constrain the probe power as well as the minimum ER of the pulses that can be deployed in BOTDA sensors. For instance, it is shown that, in a long-range dual-probe BOTDA, an ER higher that 32-dB, which is above that provided by standard electro-optic modulators (EOM), is necessary to be able to deploy a probe power of -3 dBm, which is the theoretical limit for that type of sensors. Even more severe can be the limitation due to the depletion effect induced by the EDFA transient response. It is found that the impairments brought by this effect are independent of the probe power, hence setting an ultimate limit for the BOTDA sensor performance. Experimentally, a long-range BOTDA deploying a 26-dB ER EOM and a conventional EDFA is shown to exhibit a BFS error higher than 1 MHz even for very small probe power.en
dc.description.sponsorshipSpanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (TEC2013-47264-C2-2-R and TEC2016- 76021-C2-1-R); FEDER funds; Universidad Pública de Navarra; German Research Foundation (DFG SCHN 716/13-1).en
dc.format.extent17 p.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherOptical Society of Americaen
dc.relation.ispartofOptics Express, Vol. 25, Issue 22, pp. 27896-27912 (2017)en
dc.rights© 2017 Optical Society of America. Users may use, reuse, and build upon the article, or use the article for text or data mining, so long as such uses are for non-commercial purposes and appropriate attribution is maintained. All other rights are reserved.en
dc.subjectBODTA sensorsen
dc.subjectPump pulsesen
dc.titleEffects of pump pulse extinction ratio in Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensorsen
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articleen
dc.typeArtículo / Artikuluaes
dc.contributor.departmentUniversidad Pública de Navarra. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónicaes_ES
dc.contributor.departmentNafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa. Ingeniaritza Elektriko eta Elektronikoa Sailaeu
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessen
dc.rights.accessRightsAcceso abierto / Sarbide irekiaes
dc.identifier.doi10.1364/OE.25.027896
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/1PE/TEC2013-47264en
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ES/1PE/TEC2016-76021en
dc.relation.publisherversionhttps://doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.027896
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersionen
dc.type.versionVersión publicada / Argitaratu den bertsioaes
dc.contributor.funderUniversidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoaes


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