# Person: Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel

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Ballester Oyarzun

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Miguel Ángel

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Economía

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3108

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Publication Open Access A theory of reference dependent behavior(2004) Apesteguía, José; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Economía; EkonomiaShow more There is extensive field and experimental evidence in a wide variety of environments showing that behavior depends on a reference point. This paper provides an axiomatic characterization for such behavior. Our approach is dual, we study choice behavior and preference relations. We proceed by gradually imposing more structure on behavior, requiring higher levels of rationality, that free the decision-maker from certain types of manipulations. Depending on the phenomena one wants to model, one degree of behavioral structure will be appropriate or another. We provide two applications of the theory: one to model the status-quo bias, and another to model addictive behavior.Show more Publication Open Access Minimal bools of rationales(2005) Apesteguía, José; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Economía; EkonomiaShow more Kalai, Rubinstein, and Spiegler (2002) propose the rationalization of choice functions that violate the “independence of irrelevant alternatives” axiom through a collection (book) of linear orders (rationales). In this paper we present an algorithm which, for any choice function, gives (i) the minimal number of rationales that rationalizes the choice function, (ii) the composition of such rationales, and (iii) information on how choice problems are related to rationales. As in the classical case, this renders the information given by a choice function completely equivalent to that given by a minimal book of rationales. We also study the structure of several choice procedures that are prominent in the literature.Show more Publication Open Access Ranking opportunity profiles through dependent evaluation of policies(Springer US, 2012) Alcalde Unzu, Jorge; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Economía; EkonomiaShow more Rankings to evaluate opportunity distributions present in most of the literature judge a policy (change from one distribution of opportunities to another) on the basis of the changes created and, thus, independently of the original situation. This paper proposes a group of axioms capturing the idea that rankings of equality of opportunities might consider not only the changes promoted, but also the initial situation in society. The combination of this group of axioms with other well-established properties enables us to characterize two families of new opportunity distribution rankings. The first family weighs each individual’s percentage share in the total number of opportunities, while the second weighs opportunities depending on how many agents have them available.Show more Publication Open Access Uncertainty with ordinal likelihood information(Springer-Verlag, 2013) Alcalde Unzu, Jorge; Arlegi Pérez, Ricardo; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Economía; EkonomiaShow more We present a model that is closely related to the so-called models of choice under complete uncertainty, in which the agent has no information about the probability of the outcomes. There are two approaches within the said models: the state space-based approach, which takes into account the possible states of nature and the correspondence between states and outcomes; and the set-based approach, which ignores such information, and solves certain difficulties arising from the state space-based approach. Kelsey (Int Econ Rev 34:297–308, 1993) incorporates into a state space-based framework the assumption that the agent has ordinal information about the likelihood of the states. This paper incorporates this same assumption into a set-based framework, thus filling a theoretical gap in the literature. Compared to the set-based models of choice under complete uncertainty we introduce the information about the ordinal likelihood of the outcomes while, compared to Kelsey’s approach, we incorporate the advantages of describing uncertainty environments from the set-based perspective. We present an axiomatic study that includes adaptations of some of the axioms found in the related literature and we characterize some rules featuring different combinations of information about the ordinal likelihood of the outcomes and information about their desirability.Show more Publication Open Access On the equivalence of the two existing extensions of the leximax criterion to the infinite case(2006) Arlegi Pérez, Ricardo; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Besada, M.; Miguel Velasco, Juan Ramón de; Nieto Vázquez, Jorge; Vázquez, C.; Economía; EkonomiaShow more Using a common framework, we consider the two existing extensions of the leximax criterion to infinite environments (Arlegi et al. (2005) and Ballester and De Miguel (2003), and show that, though the respective definitions of the rules and their axiomatic characterizations appear to differ considerably, they actually propose the same extension of the leximax criterion to the infinite case.Show more Publication Open Access Freedom of choice: John Stuart Mill and the tree of life(Springer-Verlag, 2012) Alcalde Unzu, Jorge; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Nieto Vázquez, Jorge; Economía; EkonomiaShow more This essay deals with the notion and content of freedom of choice proposing a new set up and a new family of measures for this concept which is, indeed, an ethical value of paramount importance in a well ordered and open society. Following some ideas of John StuartMill, we propose that freedom of choice has to be understood not in a single stage of choice, but in the ordered collection of choices that a person can make in her life.We then suggest to represent a life in a tree structure, where each node represents a state of life and the edges between nodes will represent possible decisions in life. In this new framework, we propose a set of axioms that imply the following family of measures of lifetime’s freedom of choice: the lifetime’s freedom of choice has to be evaluated by a weighted sum of all possible states of life an individual might visit, with weights representing the number of decisions the individual took to reach that state.Show more Publication Open Access Variable population egalitarian ethics and the critical-level: a note(2000) Arlegi Pérez, Ricardo; Ballester Oyarzun, Miguel Ángel; Nieto Vázquez, Jorge; Economía; EkonomiaShow more This paper explores the introduction of a variable critical-level in a variable population context. We focus the attention on the “Critical-Level Egalitarian Rule”, a social evaluation procedure which compares two social states as follows: (i) It reproduces the leximin criterion when applied to vectors of identical dimension and (ii) otherwise, it completes the small one with so many times a variable critical-level as to make the two vectors equal in size and applies the leximin criterion again. We prove that the use of a strict monotonic critical-level leads to the intransitivity of the social evaluation rule. This problem disappears when a weak monotonicity condition is required.Show more