Decision making with horizontal cooperation and environmental criteria for transportation: optimization and simulation models for the vehicle routing problem and the facility location problem

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Acceso abierto / Sarbide irekia
Tesis doctoral / Doktoretza tesia

Project identifier


Transportation is a major contributor to the development of the world economy and, at the same time, a major contributor to air pollution and global warming. Additionally, the unstoppable increase of competition as consequence of the globalization, as well as the increasingly service quality demanded by customers related to shorter times and lower costs, are forcing logistics companies to consider new managerial strategies. In this sense, horizontal cooperation among logistic companies is seen as a real alternative for gaining efficiency and sustainability. These agreements can be summarized as any arrangement between partners, tacit or not, which involves more than one company without vertical relationship between them, i.e., no supplier-customer relationship, based on trust and mutual commitment to identify and exploit win-win situations with the goal of sharing benefits (or risks) that would be higher (or lower) than each company would obtain if they acted completely independently. Therefore, in the first part of this thesis, several simulation models have been developed to track the evolution of a coalition in order to quantify horizontal cooperation impact in both economic and environmental sides considering the existence of trust-related issues. Additionally, as a great source of cooperation, a real application consisted on the location of a biorefinery is presented, developed, and discussed. On the other hand, environmental impacts of transportation should be measured and assessed for their integration in the existing optimization models. Thus, the second part of this thesis is devoted to the pricing through a contingent valuation survey of environmental impacts (externalities) and their internalization in the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem. In this sense, several optimization models are developed to assess the impact of the internalization of externalities on the routing decisions of logistics operations.


Horizontal cooperation, Simulation, Optimization, Vehicle routing problem, Facility location problem, Biorefinery, Pricing, Contingent valuation survey, Internalization, Externalities, Trust


Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas / Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika



Doctorate program

Programa de Doctorado en Economía, Empresa y Derecho (RD 99/2011)
Ekonomiako, Enpresako eta Zuzenbideko Doktoretza Programa (ED 99/2011)

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Funding entities

1. TRA2015-71883-REDT. Transport, Logistics, and Smart Production. Spanish Ministry of Economics and Competitiveness; 2. CAN2015-70473. COOP-Sustainable Transportation-2: Smart Logistics and Sustainable Road Freight Transportation. Caja Navarra Foundation; 3. CYTED2014-P514RT0013 Ibero-American Network for Smart Logistics and Sustainable Transportation in Urban Environments. Ibero-American Program for Science and Technology for Development; 4. TRA2013-48180-C3-1-P. Horizontal Cooperation and Environmental Costs in the Management of Sustainable Road Freight Transportation. Spanish Ministry of Economics and Competitiveness; 5. IIM14196.RI1. Biorefinery in Navarre. Government of Navarre; 6. These PhD studies have received financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education (predoctoral grant FPU14/00024).

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