# Person: Palacios Herrero, Pablo

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Palacios Herrero

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Pablo

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Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas

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InaMat2. Instituto de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados y Matemáticas

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0000-0002-3123-2889

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811775

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Publication Open Access Uniform convergent expansions of integral transforms(American Mathematical Society, 2021) López García, José Luis; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more Several convergent expansions are available for most of the special functions of the mathematical physics, as well as some asymptotic expansions [NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 2010]. Usually, both type of expansions are given in terms of elementary functions; the convergent expansions provide a good approximation for small values of a certain variable, whereas the asymptotic expansions provide a good approximation for large values of that variable. Also, quite often, those expansions are not uniform: the convergent expansions fail for large values of the variable and the asymptotic expansions fail for small values. In recent papers [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019] we have designed new expansions of certain special functions, given in terms of elementary functions, that are uniform in certain variables, providing good approximations of those special functions in large regions of the variables, in particular for large and small values of the variables. The technique used in [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019] is based on a suitable integral representation of the special function. In this paper we face the problem of designing a general theory of uniform approximations of special functions based on their integral representations. Then, we consider the following integral transform of a function g(t) with kernel h(t, z), F(z) := 1 0 h(t, z)g(t)dt. We require for the function h(t, z) to be uniformly bounded for z ∈D⊂ C by a function H(t) integrable in t ∈ [0, 1], and for the function g(t) to be analytic in an open region Ω that contains the open interval (0, 1). Then, we derive expansions of F(z) in terms of the moments of the function h, M[h(·, z), n] := 1 0 h(t, z)tndt, that are uniformly convergent for z ∈ D. The convergence of the expansion is of exponential order O(a−n), a > 1, when [0, 1] ∈ Ω and of power order O(n−b), b > 0, when [0, 1] ∈/ Ω. Most of the special functions F(z) having an integral representation may be cast in this form, possibly after an appropriate change of the integration variable. Then, special interest has the case when the moments M[h(·, z), n] are elementary functions of z, because in that case the uniformly convergent expansion derived for F(z) is given in terms of elementary functions. We illustrate the theory with several examples of special functions different from those considered in [Bujanda & all, 2018-2019].Show more Publication Open Access Series representations of the Volterra function and the Fransén–Robinson constant(Elsevier, 2021) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more The Volterra function μ(t,β,α) was introduced by Vito Volterra in 1916 as the solution to certain integral equations with a logarithmic kernel. Despite the large number of applications of the Volterra function, the only known analytic representations of this function are given in terms of integrals. In this paper we derive several convergent expansion of μ(t,β,α) in terms of incomplete gamma functions. These expansions may be used to implement numerical evaluation techniques for this function. As a particular application, we derive a numerical series representation of the Fransén–Robinson constant F := µ(1, 1, 0) = R ∞ 0 1 Γ(x) dx. Some numerical examples illustrate the accuracy of the approximationsShow more Publication Open Access An analytic representation of the second symmetric standard elliptic integral in terms of elementary functions(Springer, 2022) Bujanda Cirauqui, Blanca; López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more We derive new convergent expansions of the symmetric standard elliptic integral RD(x,y,z), for x,y,z∈C∖(−∞,0], in terms of elementary functions. The expansions hold uniformly for large and small values of one of the three variables x, y or z (with the other two fixed). We proceed by considering a more general parametric integral from which RD(x,y,z) is a particular case. It turns out that this parametric integral is an integral representation of the Appell function F1(a;b,c;a+1;x,y). Therefore, as a byproduct, we deduce convergent expansions of F1(a;b,c;a+1;x,y). We also compute error bounds at any order of the approximation. Some numerical examples show the accuracy of the expansions and their uniform features.Show more Publication Open Access New analytic representations of the hypergeometric functions p+1Fp(Springer, 2021) López García, José Luis; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y MatemáticasShow more The power series expansions of the hypergeometric functions p+1Fp (a,b1,…,bp;c1,…,cp;z) converge either inside the unit disk |z|<1 or outside this disk |z|>1. Nørlund’s expansion in powers of z/(z−1) converges in the half-plane R(z)<1/2. For arbitrary z0∈C, Bühring’s expansion in inverse powers of z−z0 converges outside the disk |z−z0|= max{|z0|,|z0−1|}. None of them converge on the whole indented closed unit disk |z|≤1,z≠1. In this paper, we derive new expansions in terms of rational functions of z that converge in different regions, bounded or unbounded, of the complex plane that contain the indented closed unit disk. We give either explicit formulas for the coefficients of the expansions or recurrence relations. The key point of the analysis is the use of multi-point Taylor expansions in appropriate integral representations of p+1Fp(a,b1,…,bp;c1,…,cp;z). We show the accuracy of the approximations by means of several numerical experiments.Show more Publication Open Access Uniform approximations of the first symmetric elliptic integral in terms of elementary functions(Springer, 2022) Bujanda Cirauqui, Blanca; López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Gobierno de Navarra / Nafarroako GobernuaShow more We consider the standard symmetric elliptic integral RF(x, y, z) for complex x, y, z. We derive convergent expansions of RF(x, y, z) in terms of elementary functions that hold uniformly for one of the three variables x, y or z in closed subsets (possibly unbounded) of C\ (−∞, 0]. The expansions are accompanied by error bounds. The accuracy of the expansions and their uniform features are illustrated by means of some numerical examples.Show more Publication Open Access The uniform asymptotic method "saddle point near an end point" revisited(Elsevier, 2024) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertistate PublikoaShow more We continue the program initiated in [López & all, 2009–2011] to simplify asymptotic methods for integrals: in this paper we revise the uniform method ‘‘saddle point near an end point’’. We obtain a more systematic version of this uniform asymptotic method where the computation of the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion is remarkably simpler than in the classical method. On the other hand, as in the standard method, the asymptotic sequence is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. New asymptotic expansions of the confluent hypergeometric functions 𝑀(𝑐, 𝑥∕𝛼 + 𝑐 + 1, 𝑥) and 𝑈(𝑐, 𝛼𝑥 + 𝑐 + 1, 𝑥) for large 𝑥, 𝑐 fixed, uniformly valid for 𝛼 ∈ (0, ∞), are given as an illustration.Show more Publication Open Access Analytic approximations of integral transforms in terms of elementary functions: application to special functions(2023) Palacios Herrero, Pablo; López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more This thesis focuses on the study of new analytical methods for the approximation of integral transforms and, in particular, of special functions that admit an integral representation. The importance of these functions lies in the fact that they are solutions to a great variety of functional equations that model speciﬁc physical phenomena. Moreover, they play an important role in pure and applied mathematics, as well as in other branches of science such as chemistry, statistics or economics. Usually, the integrals deﬁning these special functions depend on various parameters that have a speciﬁc physical meaning. For this reason, it is important to have analytical techniques that allow their computation in a quick and easy manner. The most commonly used analytical methods are based on series expansions of local validity: Taylor series and asymptotic (divergent) expansions that are, respectively, valid for small or large values of the physically relevant variable. However, neither of them is, in general, simultaneously valid for large and small values of the variable. In this thesis we seek new methods for the computation of analytic expansions of integral transforms satisfying the following three properties: (a) The expansions are uniformly valid in a large region of the complex plane. Ideally, these regions should be unbounded and contain the point 0 in their interior. (b) The expansions are convergent. Therefore, it is not necessary to obtain error bounds or to study the optimal term to truncate the expansion: the more terms considered, the smaller the error committed. (c) The expansions are given in terms of elementary functions. We develop a theory of uniform expansions that shows the necessary and suﬃcient conditions to obtain expansions of integral transforms fulﬁlling the three conditions (a),(b) and (c) above. This theory is applied to obtain new series approximations satisfying (a), (b) and (c) of a large number of special functions. The new expansions are compared with other known representations that we may ﬁnd in the literature to show their ad-vantages and drawbacks. In contrast to the Taylor and asymptotic expansions, the main beneﬁt of the uniform expansions is that they are valid in a large region of the complex plane. For this reason, they may be used to replace the function they approximate (which is often diﬃcult to work with) when it appears in certain calculations, such as a factor of an integral or in a diﬀerential equation. Since these developments are also given in terms of elementary functions, such calculations may be carried out easily. Next, we consider a particularly important case: when the kernel of the integral transform is given by an exponential. We develop a new Laplace’s method for integrals that produces asymptotic and convergent expansions, in contrast to the classical Laplace method which produces divergent developments. The expansions obtained with this new method satisfy (a) and (b) but not (c), since the asymptotic sequence is given in terms of incomplete beta functions. Finally, we develop a new uniform asymptotic method 'saddle point near an end point' which does not satisfy (b) and (c) but, unlike the classical 'saddle point near an end point' method, allows us to calculate the coeﬃcients of the expansion by means of a simple and systematic formula.Show more Publication Open Access A convergent and asymptotic Laplace method for integrals(Elsevier, 2023) López García, José Luis; Pagola Martínez, Pedro Jesús; Palacios Herrero, Pablo; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate PublikoaShow more Watson’s lemma and Laplace’s method provide asymptotic expansions of Laplace integrals F (z) := ∫ ∞ 0 e −zf (t) g(t)dt for large values of the parameter z. They are useful tools in the asymptotic approximation of special functions that have a Laplace integral representation. But in most of the important examples of special functions, the asymptotic expansion derived by means of Watson’s lemma or Laplace’s method is not convergent. A modification of Watson’s lemma was introduced in [Nielsen, 1906] where, by the use of inverse factorial series, a new asymptotic as well as convergent expansion of F (z), for the particular case f (t) = t, was derived. In this paper we go some steps further and investigate a modification of the Laplace’s method for F (z), with a general phase function f (t), to derive asymptotic expansions of F (z) that are also convergent, accompanied by error bounds. An analysis of the remainder of this new expansion shows that it is convergent under a mild condition for the functions f (t) and g(t), namely, these functions must be analytic in certain starlike complex regions that contain the positive axis [0,∞). In many practical situations (in many examples of special functions), the singularities of f (t) and g(t) are off this region and then this method provides asymptotic expansions that are also convergent. We illustrate this modification of the Laplace’s method with the parabolic cylinder function U(a, z), providing an asymptotic expansions of this function for large z that is also convergent.Show more