Comunicaciones y ponencias de congresos DCIE - ZIES Biltzarretako komunikazioak eta txostenak

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  • PublicationOpen Access
    Simulación acústica de un evento singular en un entorno abierto: el Tribunal de las Aguas de la Huerta de Valencia
    (Sociedade Portuguesa de Acústica, 2020) Díaz, Elena; Pastor Aparicio, Adolfo; Fraile, Rubén; López Ballester, Jesús; Fayos, Rafael; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Galindo, Miguel; Segura García, Jaume; Cerdá, Salvador; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Cibrián, Rosa; Giménez, Alicia; Ciencias; Zientziak
    El Tribunal de las Aguas de la Huerta de Valencia, declarado Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad en 2009 por la UNESCO, es la más antigua institución de justicia existente en Europa. Cada jueves, bajo la gótica Puerta de los Apóstoles de la Catedral de Valencia, se juzgan oralmente los pleitos entre los agricultores de las ocho acequias de la huerta valenciana. Dada la importancia de este evento y con el fin último de promocionar y preservar el Patrimonio Cultural Valenciano, el objetivo de este estudio es realizar la simulación acústica del entorno del Tribunal de las Aguas, utilizando para ello las herramientas proporcionadas por la acústica en recintos. A falta de una normativa especifica sobre este tipo de paisaje sonoro, se ha establecido una metodología de actuación basada en la norma UNE-EN ISO 3382-1.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Variabilidad del promediado espacial de la reverberación y claridad en la catedral de Valencia
    (Sociedade Portuguesa de Acústica, 2020) Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ezcurra Guisasola, María Amaya; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Giménez, Alicia; Díaz, Elena; Cerdá, Salvador; Cibrián, Rosa; Segura García, Jaume; Ciencias; Zientziak
    ISO 3382-1:2009 especifica los métodos de medición del tiempo de reverberación y de otros parámetros acústicos en salas de espectáculos, así como el método para evaluar los datos y presentar el informe de ensayo. Para un recinto con 8 posiciones de micrófono, hemos analizado la variabilidad de los resultados en función de las posibles ubicaciones de los mismos, cumpliendo todas ellas (un total de 82944 variantes) los criterios establecidos por la norma. Si bien los resultados de las mediciones no se debieran promediar sobre la totalidad de las posiciones de micrófono en la sala, hemos analizado la variabilidad de los promedios, con referencia al JND del parámetro, para dos aspectos: reverberación y claridad del sonido percibido. Para el caso del local reverberante estudiado (Catedral de Valencia) los resultados promedios caracterizan con precisión al local en los aspectos subjetivos analizados.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Visualización de diferencias entre señales envolventes en formato ambisónico
    (Sociedad Española de Acústica, 2022) Eguinoa Cabrito, Rubén; Sagasti, Amaia; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Pietrzak, Agnieszka Paula; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ciencias; Zientziak
    Ambisonics es un formato de sonido de esfera completa en el que, en contraste con otros formatos envolventes, los canales no distribuyen la señal que alimenta a cada altavoz. Por ello, cuando se desea cuantificar diferencias entre diferentes codificaciones para evaluar la calidad de diferentes micrófonos ambisónicos, por ejemplo, la comparación directa de los niveles de cada canal no proporciona resultados fácilmente interpretables. En esta comunicación se presenta una aplicación en Matlab que facilita la comparación en tiempo real de señales en formato ambisónico hasta de séptimo orden. Las diferencias en cuanto a distribución espacial de energía sonora se visualizan en una proyección azimutal modificada que preserva las proporciones de las áreas. Para ello, se decodifica cada señal a una malla de altavoces virtuales espaciados uniformemente. Un cálculo posterior de los valores eficaces en cada punto permite representar la distribución de energía de cada señal y evaluar así su imagen espacial. Se muestran, a modo de ejemplo de uso, representaciones de diferentes órdenes de codificación para una misma escena sonora y del efecto sobre señales de primer orden de diferentes técnicas paramétricas de upmixing.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Proyecto JAULAB, más allá del aula
    (Sociedad Española de Acústica, 2022) San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Eguinoa Cabrito, Rubén; Beunza, A.; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ciencias; Zientziak; Universidad Pública de Navarra / Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa
    El proyecto JAULAB surge desde el grupo de Acústica de la UPNA con el objetivo de, a través del arte, acercar el trabajo realizado en el Laboratorio de Acústica a espacios menos habituados al lenguaje científico y tecnológico. Para ello, se propuso a artistas de diferentes disciplinas la creación de una instalación sonora para experimentar con escenas sonoras en 3D. Se contactó con el Departamento de Escultura de la Escuela de Arte y Superior de Diseño de Pamplona, que se hizo cargo del diseño de la estructura principal. La estructura se construyó en la Fundación Elkarte, un centro que tiene como objetivo formar a colectivos de reinserción social en el ámbito de la soldadura. Asimismo, con la colaboración del grupo UpnaLab que fomenta la cultura Maker, se diseñaron e imprimieron los altavoces para la instalación. Los usuarios finales de la instalación pueden introducirse en una esfera de 3 metros de diámetro y son rodeados por 24 altavoces independientes que generan audio en forma de contenido sonoro personalizado, escalable, inmersivo e interactivo.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Sound scene recreator: herramienta para investigar la percepción de paisajes sonoros
    (Sociedade Portuguesa de Acústica, 2020) Eguinoa Cabrito, Rubén; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ciencias; Zientziak
    Uno de los objetivos al analizar un paisaje sonoro es identificar sus componentes y su influencia en nuestra percepción del mismo. En esta comunicación se presenta una herramienta de software dedicada que facilita esta tarea. La herramienta permite controlar tanto el proceso de presentación de estímulos como la recopilación de datos y su exportación para el posterior análisis e interpretación. La aplicación presenta una escena sonora previamente sintetizada. A partir de las fuentes individuales y mediante un controlador MIDI que las posiciona espacialmente, el sujeto recrea el paisaje original. La herramienta permite alternar ambas escenas, además de recoger datos de localización de las fuentes utilizadas y otros juicios de tipo semántico. Su aplicación más evidente es la realización de ensayos relativos a la percepción de paisajes sonoros, discriminación en localización de fuentes, evaluación de algoritmos de renderización de audio espacial, o análisis de los procesos de atención selectiva.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Evaluación comparativa de 19 modelos de estimación de irradiancia difusa sobre planos inclinados dependiendo del tipo de cielo estándar ISO/CIE
    (LNEG, 2020) García Ruiz, Ignacio; Torres Escribano, José Luis; Blas Corral, María Ángeles de; Sáenz Gamasa, Carlos; Hernández Salueña, Begoña; Illanes, R.; Ingeniería; Ingeniaritza; Ciencias; Zientziak
    En este trabajo se han evaluado 19 modelos de estimación de irradiancia difusa sobre el plano inclinado, que incluyen tanto modelos isotrópicos o pseudoisotrópicos como modelos anisotrópicos. Dicha evaluación se ha llevado a cabo a partir una serie de 5396 observaciones de irradiancia global, difusa y directa realizadas entre julio y diciembre de 2018 en la estación radiométrica de la Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA). El estado del cielo correspondiente a cada observación se ha caracterizado de acuerdo con el CIE Standard General Sky propuesto en la norma ISO 15469:2004(E)/CIE S 011/E:2003. Para esta clasificación se han utilizado las medidas de distribución angular de luminancia y radiancia proporcionadas por un escáner de cielo ubicado en la propia estación de la UPNA. De tal manera que, para cada combinación de orientación e inclinación del plano, se ha evaluado la bondad de los distintos modelos de acuerdo con los 15 tipos de cielo estándar propuestos por la norma ISO/CIE. Los resultados revelan que el modelo de Perez et al. 2 presenta los mejores resultados globales, así como en 5 de los 15 tipos de cielo ISO/CIE.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Grape stems as preservative in Tempranillo wine
    (2022) Pires Nogueira, Danielle; Jiménez Moreno, Nerea; Esparza Catalán, Irene; Moler Cuiral, José Antonio; Ancín Azpilicueta, Carmen; Zientziak; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Ciencias; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas
    SO2 is the most widely used preservative in the wine industry. However, there are several drawbacks related with the use of SO2 in wine, such as, its toxicity and the unpleasant odor in case of excess [1]. These reasons justify the importance of searching alternatives to reduce or eliminate this preservative from wine. Polyphenol rich extracts from agri-food industry by-products have been studied as a replacement for their high antioxidant activity, and positive results reported [2]. The grapes stems are discarded early on in the winemaking process, in spite of containing large amounts of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to determine whether the ground stem and its extract had the potential to totally or partially replace SO2 in wine.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Smarterial – Smart matter optomagnetic
    (2021) Irisarri Erviti, Josu; Galarreta Rodríguez, Itziar; Marzo Pérez, Asier; Estatistika, Informatika eta Matematika; Ingeniaritza; Zientziak; Institute of Smart Cities - ISC; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Estadística, Informática y Matemáticas; Ingeniería; Ciencias
    Smart materials, also known as programmable materials, are a combination of different components that have the capability to change shape, move around and adapt to numerous situations by applying an external controllable field. Previous works have used optically guided matter or magnetically actuated materials, but similarly to soft robots, they are limited in spatial resolution or strength. Here we propose combining a low temperature thermoplastic polymer Polycaprolactone (PCL) with ferromagnetic powder particles (Fe). Focused light can heat this compound at specific locations and make it malleable. These heated spots can be actuated by external magnetic fields. Once the material cools down, this process can be repeated, or reversed. The compound can be actuated contact-less in the form of 3D slabs, 2D sheets, and 1D filaments. We show applications for reversible tactile displays and manipulation of objects. The laboratory team has characterised the density, weight, magnetic attraction, magnetic force, phase change, thermal and electrical conductivity and heat difusión (spread point test) for smart ferromagnetic compounds of different mixture proportions. The main advantages of this smart matter optomagnetic are the high spatial resolution of light and the strong force of magnetic attraction whilst mechanical properties of polymers are practically conserved. Due to the low temperature required and the possibility to use infrared or electromagnetic induction to heat the compound, the smart material can be used in air, water, or inside biological tissue. Eventually, Smart materials will enrich collaborative movements, such as grab and hold, and more complex ones, as reshaping and reassembling.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Invertebrate community of Scots pine coarse woody debris in the Southwestern Pyrenees under different thinning intensities and tree species
    (MDPI, 2021) Herrera Álvarez, Ximena; Blanco Vaca, Juan Antonio; Imbert Rodríguez, Bosco; Álvarez, Willin; Rivadeneira Barba, Gabriela; Zientziak; Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Applied Biology - IMAB; Ciencias
    Background and Objectives: The forest in the Southwestern Pyrenees Mountains (Northern Spain) is mainly composed of pure Pinus sylvestris L. or a mix of P. sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica L. The most common forest management technique to harvest pine is the application of forest thinning with different intensities. It promotes a change in the forest composition and structure. Taking into consideration this region as a site specific research about this topic, we aimed to understand the CWD invertebrate composition response to different thinning intensities and canopy type of these tree species. Materials and Methods: CWD samples were collected belonging to intermediate and advanced decay classes, approximately 10 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. Using a design of three thinning intensities (0%, 20%, and 40% of basal area removed), with three replications per treatment (nine plots in total), four samples were taken per plot (two per canopy type) to reach 36 samples in total. Meso- and macrofauna were extracted from CWD samples with Berlese– Tullgren funnels, and individuals were counted and identified. Results: Most of the taxonomic groups belonged to mesofauna, mainly to Acari and Collembola orders. On the other hand, the macrofauna represented a minimum percentage of the community composition. Our results indicated that although thinning intensities did not significantly affect the invertebrate community, canopy type and CWD water content influenced significantly. It is imperative to consider in forest management the responses of canopy type and thinning intensities in CWD water content, this disturbance could also slow down the organic matter decomposition process in the soil, thus affecting in the long term the natural cycle of nutrients.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Along-the-path exponential integration for Floquet stability analysis of wind turbines
    (IOP Publishing, 2022) Ros Ganuza, Javier; Olcoz Alonso, Álvaro; Plaza Puértolas, Aitor; Zientziak; Institute of Smart Cities - ISC; Ciencias; Gobierno de Navarra / Nafarroako Gobernua
    Traditionally, stability assessment of wind turbines has been performed by eigenanalysis of the azimuthally-averaged linearized system after applying the Multi-Blade Coordinate (MBC) transformation. However, due to internal or external anisotropy, the MBC transform does not produce an exact Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system, and a Floquet analysis is required to capture the influence of all periodic terms, leading to a more accurate stability analysis. In this paper exponential integration methods that use system linearizations at different blade azimuth positions are used to integrate the perturbed system state and compute the Floquet monodromy matrix. The proposed procedure is assessed for a simple 6 DOF wind turbine model and a more complex aeroelastic model of a 5MW onshore wind turbine. The defined along-the-path or moving-point exponential integrator is found to be the suitable in order to perform a Floquet stability analysis even using a coarse linearization grid.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    New hybrid organochlorinated xerogels
    (2021) Cruz Quesada, Guillermo; Espinal Viguri, Maialen; López Ramón, María Victoria; Garrido Segovia, Julián José; Zientziak; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Ciencias
    Hybrid silica xerogels (HSXG) combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in the same material, which makes them promising and versatile candidates for multiple applications. These materials can be easily prepared by the sol-gel process, which offers the possibility to obtain different morphologies. The incorporation of organic precursors plays an important role in their properties, hence, allowing the design of materials for specific applications such as coatings for optical fibers [1]. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the alkyl chain and chlorine atom on the morphological and textural properties of various hybrid materials produced by co-condensation. For this purpose, three series of hybrid xerogels were prepared by co-condensation of TEOS and a chloroalkyltriethoxysilane (TEOS:ClRTEOS, R = methyl, ethyl or propyl) at different molar ratios. The influence of the precursors on the structure and textural properties of the xerogels was studied by means of N2 adsorption, XRD (X-ray diffraction), 29Si NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and FE-SEM (Field Emission-scanning electron microscope) [2].
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Hybrid xerogels doped with Tb(III) and Eu (III) and a water soluble Pybox ligand
    (2021) Cruz Quesada, Guillermo; Espinal Viguri, Maialen; Garrido Segovia, Julián José; Zientziak; Institute for Advanced Materials and Mathematics - INAMAT2; Ciencias
    Hybrid organic-inorganic siliceous materials (ORMOSiLs) are a key focus within the nanoscience area as they combine advantages of inorganic materials without losing characteristics intrinsic of organic molecules. In the past years, our research group has designed hybrid siliceous xerogels (HSXG) with porosities and surface chemistries on demand for a range of applications, such as coatings for optic fiber sensors [1]. Although hybrid xerogels are mainly amorphous materials, recent studies by our group have demonstrated that introducing specific organic fragments on the precursors can induce selforganization during the sol-gel process to obtain a series of transparent nanostructured HSXG [2]. In the present work, a step forward is taken in the applicability of this type of HSXG by doping them with Tb(III) or Eu (III) cations and a water-soluble pybox-based antenna ligand (Pybox-EG= 2,2′-(4-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(4,5-dihydrooxazole)). Inclusion of photoluminescence will provide the materials with new properties and therefore new applications in fiber optic sensors (FOS) or in solar cells devices.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Potencialidades del frijol caupí para la resiliencia al cambio climático en sistemas agrícolas locales
    (2022) Santana-Baños, Yoerlandy; González García, Esther; Ariz, Idoia; Carrodeguas Díaz, Sergio; Ciencias; Zientziak
    Las evidencias científicas sugieren tres usos fundamentales del frijol caupí, con agro-ecológicas y beneficios productivos, sociales y ambientales en los sistemas agrícolas locales; sin embargo, su rendimiento a nivel mundial y en América no experimenta crecimiento en los últimos años. Los resultados obtenidos en Pinar del Río, Cuba, sugieren la posibilidad de emplearlo como alternativa para la producción de grano pero debe fomentarse, desde la ciencia, la innovación y las instituciones y órganos de decisión a nivel local, la cultura de producción y consumo de esta leguminosa para su aprovechamiento en la sostenibilidad agrícola de los agro-ecosistemas.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Subjective evaluation of the localization performance of the spherical wavelet format compared to ambisonics
    (IEEE, 2021) Eguinoa Cabrito, Rubén; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Arteaga, Daniel; Scaini, Davide; Ciencias; Zientziak
    A common goal of most spatial audio techniques is to reproduce the precise location and size of sound sources. Ambisonics is a well-established spatial audio technique that renders sound sources with increasing accuracy as the Ambisonics’ order increases. Recently, a novel spatial audio format that replaces spherical harmonics with a set of functions based on wavelets has been proposed. The Spherical Wavelet Format (SWF) aims to improve Ambisonics localization, especially at low orders. This study investigates the perceptual spatial properties of both techniques by means of a set of MUSHRA tests.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    iNaturalist Arga: acercándonos a la biodiversidad de los ríos urbanos para aprender a cuidarlos
    (Fundación Conama, 2021) González García, Esther; Peralta de Andrés, Francisco Javier; García, Mar; Alzueta, José; Fernández Escalada, Manuel; Marzo Pérez, Asier; Aliende, Andrea; Miguel, Jon; Alvira Guallart, María Aránzazu; Ciencias; Zientziak; Gobierno de Navarra / Nafarroako Gobernua, CENEDUCA3-2019
    La biodiversidad es un concepto que forma parte del currículo de la educación secundaria. Las herramientas TIC (Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) colaborativas abiertas disponibles ofrecen nuevas posibilidades para el ampliar el conocimiento sobre biodiversidad de los estudiantes de secundaria y futuros ciudadanos. Este estudio utiliza la plataforma de ciencia ciudadana iNaturalist como herramienta de utilidad en el currículo sobre biodiversidad incluido en la educación secundaria obligatoria. En este contexto, se ha creado un proyecto en esta plataforma centrado en el río Arga que atraviesa la ciudad de Pamplona: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/arga. El proyecto implica a centros de educación secundaria, formación profesional y educación ambiental para realizar observaciones sobre biodiversidad en el entorno dicho río. Su objetivo es mejorar el conocimiento de los estudiantes de educación secundaria del concepto biodiversidad así como del río, además de poner en valor este ecosistema fluvial en un entorno urbano en las futuras generaciones. El proyecto fue puesto en marcha en el curso 2019-2020 e incorpora 468 observaciones de 213 especies aportadas por 39 observadores y 140 identificadores han colaborado en su validación. Aunque la participación en ese curso fue limitada a un centro educativo como consecuencia de la pandemia COVID, esta experiencia ha servido como modelo para el futuro desarrollo del proyecto. En el curso 2020-2021 se vuelve a poner en marcha el proyecto ARGA con el objetivo de establecerse como una herramienta de referencia para la comunidad educativa y de conectar el sector educativo con la sociedad en torno al concepto biodiversidad para destacar su importancia en la calidad ambiental en medios urbanos.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Evaluation of two procedures for selecting the CIE standard sky type using high dynamic range images
    (International Solar Energy Society, 2019) García Ruiz, Ignacio; Blas Corral, María Ángeles de; Torres Escribano, José Luis; Hernández Salueña, Begoña; Sáenz Gamasa, Carlos; Ormazábal Pagola, Mikel; Ingeniería; Ingeniaritza; Ciencias; Zientziak; Gobierno de Navarra / Nafarroako Gobernua
    The characterization of sky conditions according to the CIE Standard General Sky classification requires knowledge of diffuse luminance angular distribution in the sky vault. This variable is usually measured by sky scanners. However, commercial sky scanners have different drawbacks related to their resolution and measurement time. An alternative to these devices is the use of sky images captured with a digital camera equipped with a fisheye lens. The range of luminances that may occur in the sky makes it necessary to use high dynamic range (HDR) images obtained by the fusion of a series of low dynamic range (LDR) images. Two procedures for the characterization of sky conditions according to the CIE standard using HDR images have been applied and evaluated.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Well-being in students affected by rare diseases: a didactic proposal of inclusion
    (Future Academy, 2019) Pérez de Villarreal Zufiaurre, Maider; Ciencias; Zientziak
    Rare diseases (RD) or less frequent diseases affect at least 5 of 10.000 inhabitants. Due to the many disabling conditions, such as long lasting diagnostic procedures or the need of several medical treatments affecting some RD affected children in school age, they usually miss classes and need curricular adaptations. According to data from the INE, there might be 38.000 people RD affected in Navarre and 1300 disabled children, from which at least 372 children in school age could be RD affected. Schools should have the mechanisms to identify these students, as a great part would have special educational needs, derived in some cases of cognitive deficiencies, but in others, of absences forced by treatments and medical operations. Some of them also suffer from the ignorance and bullying of their peers, who scarcely understand their complicated daily routine accomplishment and the incomprehension of their teachers. The use of Cmap Tools software, together with a planned intervention based in Positive Psychology in each school from Navarre, attended by one or more RD affected child, is proposed in this article, for the creation of a Knowledge Model based on the specific RDs affecting children in Navarre. This way, a RD based Knowledge Model net could be built (regional, national and international), together with affected and non-affected students. The net would provide meaningful knowledge and could be useful for any school attended by other children suffering the same disease in Spain or other European countries, specifying the educational needs a child affected by that RD can have throughout the different educational levels. This could become a powerful international tool for normalizing RD and including affected students in the educational field, creating inclusive schools, and therefore spreading the knowledge to the social field.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Zwicker's annoyance model implementation in a WASN node
    (Sociedad Española de Acústica, 2019) Pastor Aparicio, Adolfo; López Ballester, Jesús; Segura García, Jaume; Felici Castell, Santiago; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ciencias; Zientziak
    Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network (WASN) nodes for noise measurement and acoustic environment description is a common use in the environmental measurement within the Smart City. The implementation of the psycho-acoustic parameters in each WASN node is a tricky problem and currently is the battle horse in the automatic acoustic environment description. In this work, the implementation and the improvement of the algorithms used for each psycho-acoustic parameter is described and the performance of the implementation measured.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    Influence of recording technology on the determination of binaural psychoacoustic indicators in soundscape investigations
    (Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2019) San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Arana Burgui, Miguel; Ezcurra Guisasola, María Amaya; Valencia Leoz, Ana; Ciencias; Zientziak
    The evaluation of soundscapes is mainly carried out through field surveys, using soundwalking methodologies. Through rating scales and annotation of comments, the experiences and expectations of the participants are collected. Acoustic and psychoacoustic indicators are also reported to achieve a complete description of the acoustic environment. Binaural measurement systems should be used for registration in order to consider the way in which humans perceive the acoustic environment. Artificial heads or in-ear binaural microphones are the usual devices for this purpose. Further recording technology such as sound field microphones or microphone arrays are also used in soundscape investigations. These methods can provide a higher level of immersion in a later reproduction of the recorded soundscape through multi-channel setups. However, in contrast to direct binaural recordings, the determination of binaural psychoacoustic indicators requires to perform binaural synthesis by means of Head-Related Transfer Functions and signal processing. In this communication, the influence of different recording devices on obtaining psychoacoustic indicators such as binaural loudness and sharpness is analysed.
  • PublicationOpen Access
    An efficient algorithm for the evaluation of tonality and the determination of the tonal frequency according to IEC 61400-11
    (Institute of Noise Control Engineering, 2019) Arana Burgui, Miguel; San Martín Murugarren, Ricardo; Ezcurra Guisasola, María Amaya; Valencia Leoz, Ana; Llorente, Elena; Ciencias; Zientziak
    The terms of tonality and tonal audibility of the noise emitted by wind turbines are defined and described in the standard IEC 61400-11. The procedure for tonality assessment at different wind speeds based on the narrowband analysis is explained in section 9.5 of the standard. After sorting spectra into wind speed bins, the overall tonal audibility is determined if at least six of ten of the narrowband spectra have an identified tone with the same origin. The standard describes a procedure for tonality assessment by means of a flowchart. Tones of the same origin are treated and reported as one tone. However, the standard does not specify the final value of the frequency of the tone. An efficient algorithm has been developed to evaluate the tonality of the noise emitted by wind turbines. Likewise, different alternatives to specify the final frequency of the tone are discussed, based either on their frequency of appearance in the total of the number of measurements or on the tone levels produced by such frequency.